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Medical Emergency Procedures

Weather

Lightning | Winter Weather | Spring/Summer Weather | Additional Resources

Immediate Emergency Actions

If you see or hear threatening weather (i.e., tornado, high winds, lightning, thunder, etc.) or hear that a Warning has been issued for your area.

  • Seek shelter and get inside immediately to an interior room or hallway.
  • Shut all doors and windows.
  • Stay away from exterior windows and doors.
  • Seek information: check the Great Falls College MSU Website
  • DO NOT go outside until the storm has passed.
  • After the storm has ended be aware of downed wires and falling objects.

Lightning

Lightning causes more deaths than any other weather hazard, so keep the following safety rules in mind.

If lightning threatens when you are inside:
  • Stay inside and stay away from open doors or windows, radiators, metal pipes, sinks, and plug-in electrical objects such as radios, electric typewriters, lamps, etc.
  • Do not use plug-in electrical equipment or the telephone.
If lightning strikes when you are outside:
  • Seek shelter in a building, if possible. If no buildings are available seek shelter in a ditch or ravine.
  • When there is no shelter, avoid the highest object in the area and avoid being the highest object yourself. If only isolated trees are nearby, the best protection is to crouch or lie in the open, keeping at least as far away from the isolated trees as they are high.
  • If you are wearing or carrying anything metal, get rid of it.

If you feel an electrical charge (hair stands on end, skin tingles), lightning might be about to strike you. Drop to your knees and bend forward, putting your hands on your knees.

Note: Persons struck by lightning receive a severe electrical shock and may be burned, but they retain no electrical charge and can be handled safely. A person struck by lightning can often be revived by prompt application of CPR.

Winter Weather Preparedness

Before a Winter Storm Threatens

Know the terms used by weather forecasters:

  • Winter Storm Watch– Be alert, a winter storm is likely in your area. Tune to radio or television for more information.
  • Winter Storm Warning– Take action, the storm is in or entering the area.
  • Blizzard Warning– Snow and strong winds combined will produce blinding snow, near zero visibility, deep drifts, and life-threatening wind chill. Seek refuge immediately.
  • Winter Weather Advisory – Winter weather conditions are expected to cause significant inconveniences and may be hazardous, especially to motorists.
  • Freezing Rain– Rain that freezes when it hits the ground, creating a coating of ice on road, walkways, trees and power lines. If a ½ inch or more of freezing rain is forecast an Ice Storm Warning will be issued.
  • Wind Chill Advisory / Warning– Combination of wind and cold resulting in temperatures that feel -15F to - 24F (Advisory) or -25F or colder (Warning) for more than 3 hours. Can be life threatening conditions.

Auto Safety Tips

  • About 70% of winter deaths related to snow and ice occur in automobiles.
  • Assemble an Emergency Car Kit containing: Flashlight with extra batteries, First aid kit, medications, pocket knife or multi-tool, jumper cables, blanket and/or sleeping bag, extra clothes, sand for generating vehicle traction, tire chains, basic tool kit, tow rope, water, and signal flares or bright cloth to be used as a signal flag.
  • Keep your gas tank full and check your windshield wiper fluid.
  • Install good winter tires with adequate tread.
  • Ensure your vehicle is maintained and in good working order.
  • Keep a windshield scraper, small broom and shovel for ice and snow removal.
  • Plan long trips carefully, listening to the radio or television for the latest weather forecasts and road conditions. If bad weather is forecast, drive only if absolutely necessary.
  • Travel during daylight hours, keep others informed of your schedule, route and if possible, take another person with you. Stay on main roads; avoid back road shortcuts.
  • If a blizzard traps you in your car, pull off the highway. Turn on hazard lights and hang a distress flag from your radio antenna or window.
  • Remain in your vehicle where rescuers are more likely to find you. Do not set out on foot, unless you can see a building close by where you know you can take shelter.
  • Run the engine and heater about 10 minutes each hour to keep warm. When the engine is running, open the window slightly for ventilation. Periodically clear snow from the exhaust pipe.
  • Exercise to maintain body heat, but avoid overexertion. In extreme cold, use road maps, seat covers and floor mats for insulation. Huddle with passengers.
  • Take turns sleeping. One person should be awake at all times to look for rescue crews.
  • Drink fluids to avoid dehydration.
  • Be careful not to waste battery power. Balance electricity energy needs: the use of lights, heat and radio.
  • At night, turn on the inside light so work crews and rescuers can see you.

During a Winter Storm

  • Stay indoors and limit travel to only absolutely necessary trips.
  • Check on elderly or disabled relatives and/or neighbors. Also, consider your pets.
  • If you need to go outdoors, dress for the season, wearing several layers of loose fitting, lightweight, warm clothing, rather than one layer of heavy clothing. The outer garments should be tightly woven and water repellent.
  • Mittens are better than gloves.
  • Wear a hat; most body heat is lost through the top of the head.
  • Cover your mouth with a scarf to protect your lungs.
  • Be careful when shoveling snow. Over-exertion can bring on a heart attack – a major cause of death in the winter.
  • Watch for signs of frostbite: loss of feeling and white or pale appearance in the extremities such as fingers, toes, ear lobes or the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected, seek medical help immediately.
  • Watch for signs of hypothermia: uncontrollable shivering, memory loss, disorientation, incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness and apparent exhaustion. If symptoms are detected, get the victim to a warm location, remove any wet clothing, warm the center of the body first and give warm, non-alcoholic beverages, if the victim is conscious. Get medical help, as soon as possible.

After the Winter Storm

  • Stay off roads to allow plowing operations to proceed smoothly.
  • Help dig out fire hydrants and storm drains in your neighborhood.
  • Avoid parking too close to corners, allowing Public Safety vehicles and plows to maneuver safely.
  • Be aware of children playing in the streets, particularly climbing on or running out from behind large snowdrifts. Parents should remind their children to be aware of plowing operations and traffic.
  • Clear exhaust vents from Direct Vent Gas Furnace Systems to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Never run automobile until exhaust pipe has been cleared of snow.
  • Make sure backup generators and alternative heating sources are well ventilated.
  • Take your time shoveling. Avoid overexertion.
  • Use care around downed power lines. Assume a down wire is a live wire. Report it to authorities.
  • Watch out for overhead hazards such as broken tree limbs and ice on roofs and wires.
  • Remove heavy snow from roofs; if safe to do so. Make sure gutters and drains are clear.
  • Be careful walking on snowy, icy sidewalks.

Before Spring and Summer Severe Weather Threatens:

Know the terms used by weather forecasters:
  • Severe Thunderstorm - A thunderstorm that produces a tornado, winds of at least 58 mph (50 knots), and/or hail at least ¾" in diameter. Structural wind damage may imply the occurrence of a severe thunderstorm. A thunderstorm wind equal to or greater than 40 mph (35 knots) and/or hail of at least ½" is defined as approaching severe.
  • Flash Flood - A flood which is caused by heavy or excessive rainfall in a short period of time, generally less than 6 hours. Also, at times a dam failure can cause a flash flood, depending on the type of dam and time period during which the break occurs.
  • Tornado Watch - Tornadoes are possible in your area. Remain alert for approaching storms. Listen to the media for updates.
  • Severe Thunderstorm Watch - Tells you there is a possibility of severe thunderstorms in your area likely to occur. Watch the sky and stay tuned to know when warnings are issued.
  • Flash Flood Watch – Flash flooding is possible in and close to the watch area, but the occurrence is neither certain or imminent. Listen to the National Weather Service, radio or television for information.
  • Tornado Warning - A tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar. Take shelter immediately.
  • Severe Thunderstorm Warning - A severe thunderstorm is occurring or will likely occur soon in your area. Warnings are for imminent danger to life and property to those in the path of the storm. Seek shelter immediately.
  • Flash Flood Warning - Flash flooding is in progress, imminent, or highly likely. Seek higher ground immediately or evacuate if directed to do so.

  • Continually monitor the media – Be aware of storm’s which could impact your area.
  • Know how you will be warned in an emergency (NOAA Weather radios with a tone alert are a good option).
  • Know if you live or work in a flood prone area. Check with your local emergency management for details.
  • Know where to shelter (i.e., basement, interior room/hall, bathroom, closet, etc.) if conditions warrant and where shelters in your area are located.
  • Ensure your home is ready – Elevate items in the basement which could be flooded. Bring in outdoors items such as children’s toys, patio furniture, garbage cans, etc. which could be blown around and damaged. Remove dead or rotting trees and branches that could fall and cause injury or damage.
  • Know how to shut off power, water and gas to your home. Have proper tools (i.e. wrench) ready and nearby.
  • Develop aPersonal Family Communication Plan in case family members are separated from one another during severe weather (a real possibility during the day when adults are at class and children are at school), and have a plan for getting back together. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the ‘family contact’. After a disaster, it is often easier to call out long distance. Make sure everyone knows the name, address and telephone number of the contact person.
  • Plan a place where your family will meet, both within and outside of your immediate neighborhood.
  • Notify caregivers and babysitters about your emergency plans and shelter locations.
  • Find out what types of events and kinds of damages are covered by your insurance policy. Keep insurance policies, important documents and other valuables in a safe and secure location.
  • Everyone should have an Emergency Supply Kit which would prepare them to survive on their own for at least three days. There should be: non-perishable food, bottled water, flashlights and extra batteries, a portable radio in case of power outages or other emergencies caused by severe weather. Additional items that should be included are a freshly-stocked first-aid kit, essential prescription medicines, a non-electric can opener, baby-care items, extra blankets, sleeping bags and a fire extinguisher.
  • Keep fire extinguishers on hand and make sure everyone knows how to use them.
During Severe Weather:
  • Keep an eye on the sky. Look for darkening skies, flashes of light or increasing wind. Listen for the sound of thunder. If you can hear thunder, you are close enough to be struck by lightning.
  • Blowing debris or the sound of an approaching tornado may alert you. Tornado danger signs included dark, almost greenish sky; large hail; a large, dark, low-lying cloud or a load roar, similar to a freight train.
  • Heed shelter or evacuation requests made by officials or announcements on radio/television.
  • Gather family members, bring pets indoors and have your emergency supply kit ready.
  • During a tornado warning, if outside head indoors to a safe location. Basements, lower floors or interior hallways, bathrooms, closets, rooms are best for shelter.
  • If outdoors with nowhere to go, lay flat in a ditch or low lying area. Cover your head with your hands. Be aware of the potential of flooding. Watch out for flying debris. Never try to outrun a tornado.
  • Close outside doors and window blinds, shades or curtains. Stay away from doors, windows and exterior walls. Stay in the shelter location until the danger has passed.
  • During lightning, do not use wired telephones, touch electrical appliances or use running water. Cordless or cellular telephones are safe to use.
  • If outdoors, head for shelter indoors or inside a vehicle. If boating or swimming, get out of the water immediately and get indoors. Go to a low lying place away from trees, poles or metal objects. Squat low to the ground. Make sure the place you pick does not flood.
  • Remember the 30/30 Lightning Safety Rule: Go indoors if, after seeing lightning, you cannot count to 30 before hearing thunder. Stay indoors for 30 minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder.
  • If it has been raining hard for several hours, or steadily raining for several days, be alert to the possibility of a flood.
  • Do not walk through flowing water. Drowning is the number one cause of flood deaths. Six inches of swiftly moving water can knock you off your feet.
  • Stay indoors and limit travel to only absolutely necessary trips. Listen to radio/television for updates.
Auto Safety Tips:
  • Plan long trips carefully, listening to the radio or television for the latest weather forecasts and road conditions. If bad weather is forecast, drive only if absolutely necessary.
  • Keep your gas tank full in case evacuation is needed. Keep your vehicle maintained and in good working order.
  • Assemble an Emergency Car Kit
  • If in a car during a tornado, get out immediately and lay flat in a ditch or low lying area. Do not get under an overpass or bridge. Never try to outrun a tornado.
  • Do not drive through a flooded area. Six inches of water can cause a vehicle to lose control and possibly stall. A foot of water will float many vehicles. Cars, SUVs and pickup trucks can be swept away in just 2 feet of moving water. Do not drive around road barriers - they are there for a reason.
  • Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car.
After Severe Weather:
  • Stay off roads to allow emergency crews to clear roads and provide emergency assistance.
  • Help injured or trapped persons. Do not attempt to move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of death or further injury.
  • Use the telephone only for emergencies.
  • Use care around downed power lines. Assume a downed wire is a live wire. Report to emergency authorities.
  • Watch out for overhead hazards such as broken tree limbs, wires and other debris. Be cautious walking around.
  • Be aware of children playing outdoors and in the streets, particularly climbing on or running around downed trees and wires. Parents should remind their children to stay away from these hazards.
  • Avoid walking into flood waters. The water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline or raw sewerage, contain downed power lines or animals.
  • Look for hazards such as broken/leaking gas lines, damaged sewage systems, flooded electrical circuits, submerged appliances and structural damage. Leave the area if you smell gas or chemical fumes.
  • Clean everything that gets wet. For food, medicines and cosmetics; when in doubt, through it out.
  • Make sure backup generators are well ventilated. Never use grills, generators or camping stoves indoors.
  • Listen to media reports and/or local authorities about whether your community water supply is safe to drink and other instructions.
  • Make sure gutters and drains are clear for future rain/flood events.
  • Check on neighbors, particularly elderly or those who may require special assistance.
  • Take photographs/videos of damage as soon as possible. Contact your insurance company to file a claim.

Additional Weather Preparedness Information: